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For this scenario to be viable, however, the proto-lunar disk would have to endure for about 100 years.
Work is ongoing to determine whether or not this is possible.
The Earth would have gained significant amounts of angular momentum and mass from such a collision.
Regardless of the speed and tilt of the Earth's rotation before the impact, it would have experienced a day some five hours long after the impact, and the Earth's equator and the Moon's orbit would have become coplanar.
Using Newtonian mechanics, he calculated that the Moon had orbited much more closely in the past and was drifting away from the Earth.
In 2001, a team at the Carnegie Institution of Washington reported the surprising finding that the rocks from the Apollo program carried an isotopic signature that was identical with rocks from Earth, and were different from almost all other bodies in the Solar System.
Not all of the ring material would necessarily have been swept up right away; the thickened crust of the Far Side suggests the possibility that a second moon about 1,000-km in diameter formed in a Lagrange point of the Moon.
The secondary moon was smaller than the present day Moon and was left in orbit for tens of millions of years.
Nonetheless, Darwin's calculations could not resolve the mechanics required to trace the Moon backward to the surface of the Earth. Their models suggested that, at the end of the planet formation period, several satellite-sized bodies had formed that could collide with the planets or be captured.
In 1946, Reginald Aldworth Daly of Harvard University challenged Darwin's explanation, adjusting it to postulate that the creation of the Moon was caused by an impact rather than centrifugal forces. They proposed that one of these objects may have collided with the Earth, ejecting refractory, volatile-poor dust that could coalesce to form the Moon.